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Archives for Income Tax

DAC6 Guidelines

The Commissioner for Revenue published guidelines on the Mandatory Automatic Exchange of Information in relation to Cross-Border Arrangements to compliment Subsidiary Legislation 123.127,  Cooperation with Other Jurisdictions on Tax Matters Regulations which in return transposed the tax initiatives taken at an EU level for more tax transparency as detailed in the ‘Directive on Administrative Cooperation’ or ‘DAC’.  The guidelines provide a further insight to intermediaries and taxpayers alike with clarifications on the implementing regulations.  These guidelines will be reviewed and updated regularly with the revised version to be made available online.


The main objective of DAC6 is to discourage intermediaries and taxpayers from designing, marketing and implementing harmful tax structures. Under DAC6, cross-border arrangements involving at least one EU Member State, and which feature one or more ‘hallmarks’ which are considered to be indicative of potentially aggressive tax arrangements are to be identified and reported.


Reporting entities may now also register online for the DAC6 Reporting requirements.

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Guidelines in relation to ATAD

Following the implementation of the EU Directive 2016/1164 (ATAD1) by means of Subsidiary Legislation 123.187, the Maltese tax authorities issued official guidelines with respect to the Interest Deduction Limitations, CFC and Exit Tax.


The guidelines also include examples and illustrations with respect to Interest Deduction Limitations and CFC provisions.  As regards Exit Tax, the guidelines make it clear that this new concept has to be interpreted by keeping in mind local tax provisions such as certain capital gains exemptions.


The guidelines are available on the website of the Office of the Commissioner for Revenue.

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Reduction in interest rate

By virtue of two separate legal notices, the interest on late payments of income tax and VAT has been reduced from 0.54% to 0.33% per month.  The change is effective from 1 January 2020.

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The Patent Box Regime

As from year of assessment 2020, any person incurring qualifying IP expenditure and from which qualifying IP income is derived, may claim a deduction which may reduce the chargeable income from qualifying IP by 95%.  The assets that are considered as qualifying IP are defined in the Rules and include registered patents and assets covered by protection rights, however, exclude brands, trademarks and trade names.  Every item of qualifying IP in relation to which income is derived and against which the Patent Box Regime Deduction is claimed, need to be vetted and approved by the Malta Enterprise.  The deduction is aimed for assets which are developed by the person rather than for acquired assets.  The deduction is however not limited to assets developed in Malta but require that the beneficiary maintains sufficient substance as is commensurate with the type and extent of activity being carried out.    The Rules also require that the income brought to charge is in line with the Transfer Pricing Method in terms of the OECD’s Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations.


The introduction of the Patent Box Regime is particularly interesting for persons investing in the development of patents or other innovative products from which income or gains arise.  Indeed, this regime may drastically reduce the taxable income of the person and may also be applied upon the disposal of the relevant asset.

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Tax Consolidation in Malta

Following the publication of the Consolidated Group (Income Tax) Rules by means of Legal Notice 110 of 2019, Malta introduced fiscal unity rules providing for a consolidated tax group.  As a result, certain groups of companies may, from the year of assessment 2020 (basis year 2019), opt to be treated as one single taxpayer.

Unlike the group relief provisions already contained in the Income Tax Act which provide for the surrendering of tax losses to other members of the same group, the fiscal unity rules provide for a consolidated tax group.

Also, the definition of a group in these rules is different and much wider than the definition contained in the Income Tax Act allowing both Maltese companies as well as foreign entities that fall within the definition of a company to form part of the consolidated group. The foreign entities need not be tax resident in Malta to form part of the fiscal unit, but it is necessary that they are tax registered in Malta.

It is interesting to note that certain trust arrangements as well as certain foundations may also form part of the consolidated tax group. This will give flexibility to certain structures.  On the other hand, the rules exclude certain types of foundations, securitisation vehicles and finance leasing companies.


Requirements for the Formation of a Fiscal Unit

 A parent company, as the principal taxpayer, may make an election for itself and its one or more subsidiaries to form a fiscal unit provided that in the year prior to the year of assessment it holds at least 95% of two of the following rights in each subsidiary (hereinafter refer to as 95% subsidiary):

  • voting rights;
  • profits available for distribution; or
  • assets available for distribution upon winding up.

Where the election is made, each 95% subsidiary will form part of the same fiscal unit of its parent company, with such subsidiaries being referred to as “transparent subsidiaries.” Where the transparent subsidiary is itself a parent company, its 95% subsidiaries will also join the fiscal unit.  The principal taxpayer’s election becomes effective as from the year of assessment in which it is made, provided that it is made prior to tax return submission due date of the transparent subsidiaries.

Such an election is possible provided that the accounting periods of all the members within the fiscal unit are the same and subject to the consent of any minority shareholders. Naturally, no company shall form part of more than one fiscal unit at any one time.

Upon registering as a fiscal unit, the principal taxpayer assumes the rights, duties and obligations under the Income Tax Acts relative to the fiscal unit.  The subsidiaries within the fiscal unit shall be deemed to be transparent entities for Malta income tax purposes. Balances of items allowed to be carried forward, tax credits, tax account balances (excluding the untaxed account) of the transparent subsidiaries at the end of the basis year preceding the year in which the election is made are considered to be balances of the principal taxpayer.  Such carryforward is subject to the consent of the minority shareholders and if minority shareholders do not approve, then such balances will be suspended for as long as the transparent subsidiary remains part of the fiscal unit.


The Fiscal Unit’s Chargeable Income and Tax Payable

 Intra-group transactions or transactions between members of the fiscal unit are referred to as “ignored transactions” and are disregarded for tax purposes. An exception relates to transfers of immovable property situated in Malta and transfers of property companies.

A property company is defined in the Income Tax Act as a company which owns immovable property situated in Malta or any real rights thereon or a company which holds, directly or indirectly, shares or other interests in any entity or person, which owns immovable property situated in Malta or any real rights thereon where 5% or more of the total value of the said shares or other interests so held is attributable to such immovable property or right.

Naturally, transfers of immovable property and property companies cannot be characterised as ignored transactions as otherwise such transfers would become exempt when transferred within a fiscal unit.

Given that the subsidiaries are deemed to be transparent subsidiaries, any income and gains which is not regarded as ignored transactions derived by such transparent subsidiaries, is directly allocated to the principal taxpayer.

Income or gains allocated to the principal taxpayer retain their character and source. The rules however contemplate a number of deemed source rules. For example, income or gains derived by a non-Malta tax resident transparent subsidiary is deemed to be attributable to a permanent establishment of the principal taxpayer situated outside Malta insofar as the transparent subsidiary maintains sufficient substance therein.

Similarly, expenditure and capital allowances incurred by transparent subsidiaries and which is not regarded as an ignored transaction, is directly allocated to the principal taxpayer or the parent company.

This tax consolidation provides for a full integration of the tax position of its members and hence is different in scope than the group relief provisions referred to above.

Furthermore, any foreign income tax suffered by a company forming part of the fiscal unit is deemed to have been incurred by the principal taxpayer, and relief from double taxation in accordance with the Income Tax Act is allowed accordingly.

The main advantage of the tax consolidation or the fiscal unity is that a group may achieve the same effective tax rate without the need for the distributing company or transparent subsidiary to pay the relevant tax and also avoid the need to make claims and await the receipt of the refunds.

The tax consolidation regime is optional, but should a fiscal unit be formed, the principal taxpayer is required to prepare, on a yearly basis, a consolidated balance sheet and consolidated profit and loss account covering all companies within the fiscal unit accompanied by an audit report. Given the criteria described above to form a fiscal unit, the companies included in the consolidated accounts for the tax consolidation regime may differ from thse included in the consolidated accounts as required in terms of the Companies Act.

The principal taxpayer is responsible for filing the tax return/declaration of the fiscal unit, with other members of the fiscal unit being exempted from filing their respective tax returns. However, members of the fiscal unit are jointly and severally liable for the payment of tax, additional tax and interest. The tax liability by the fiscal unit may be apportioned between the principal taxpayer and the transparent subsidiaries.

These tax consolidation rules provide for an anti-abuse rule where the tax payable by the principal taxpayer cannot be lower than 95% of the aggregate tax that would have been payable by the companies within the fiscal unit had an election under these rules was not applied for.


Benefits of Tax Consolidation

As highlighted earlier on, the main benefit of the tax consolidation or fiscal unity is the cash flow advantage especially when compared to the current operation of the partial shareholder tax refunds upon a distribution of taxed profits. The new tax consolidation rules reduce the tax due to the combined overall effective tax rate without the need to wait for the income tax refund on distributed taxed profits. However, the tax consolidation may also be useful within a local context since it is wider in scope than the surrendering of tax trading losses.  Clearly in view of the embedded anti-abuse provision, the purpose of these rules is not to provide a tax advantage.

It is evident that the tax consolidation rules will bring further compliance obligations, particularly the need to prepare and submit consolidated financial statements.  Additionally, tax computations will still be required for each company and also for the fiscal unit as a whole in order to compare the tax liabilities and satisfy the anti-abuse provision. On the other hand, there is less compliance with respect to the filing of the income tax returns or declarations as only one return or declaration is submitted by the principal taxpayer.

The Notional Interest Deduction (NID) has already eased the number of tax refund claims filed by shareholders upon a receipt of taxed dividends but we expect that these rules will be availed of by large groups. The introduction of tax consolidation rules is long-awaited and is welcome as it brings Malta at level with other financial centers.

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Malta implements ATAD

Malta implemented the EU Directive 2016/1164 of 12 July 2016 laying down rules against tax avoidance practices that directly affect the functioning of the internal market (ATAD) by means of Legal Notice 411 of 2018 EU ATAD Implementation Regulations, 2018.  The below provides an overview of the different new tax measures which will become applicable as from 1 January 2019, except for the exit taxation rule which will become applicable as from 1 January 2020.




The aim of ATAD is to implement at EU level the BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting) recommendations made by the OECD and the G20 in October 2015. ATAD lays down anti-tax avoidance rules in the following fields:

  • Deductibility of interest payments,
  • General anti-abuse rule (“GAAR”),
  • Controlled foreign companies (“CFCs”), and
  • Exit taxation.


The regulations apply to taxpayers including companies as well as other entities such as trusts and similar arrangements that are subject to tax in Malta in the same manner as companies.  The definition also applies to entities that are not resident in Malta but have a permanent establishment (PE) in Malta provided these are subject to tax in Malta as companies.


Limitation to the Tax Deductibility of Interest Payments (Rule 4)


Regulation 4 of L.N. 411 aims at limiting the deductibility of interest payments as it was recommended in the Final Report on BEPS Action 4 (interest deductions and other financial payments) and included as a minimum standard in ATAD. The objective of this rule is to discourage multinational groups from reducing their overall tax base through financing group companies in high-tax jurisdictions with debt. Notably, the scope of the interest limitation rule encompasses both related party borrowing and third party borrowing.


As from 1 January 2019, subject to certain conditions and limitations, “exceeding borrowing costs” shall be deductible only up to 30% of the corporate taxpayers’ earnings before interest, tax and amortization (“EBITDA”) or up to an amount of EUR 3 million, whichever is higher. Corporate taxpayers who can demonstrate that the ratio of their equity over their total assets is equal to or higher than the equivalent ratio of the group can fully deduct their exceeding borrowing costs (so called “escape clause”).


“Exceeding borrowing costs” correspond to the amount by which the deductible “borrowing costs” of a taxpayer exceed taxable “interest revenues and other economically equivalent taxable revenues” that the taxpayer receives. Thus, in order to determine the amount of exceeding borrowing costs, it is necessary to understand which costs fall within the scope of borrowing costs and what is considered as interest revenues and other economically equivalent taxable revenues.


Borrowing costs to take into account are interest expenses on all forms of debt, other costs economically equivalent to interest and expenses incurred in connection with the raising of finance, including, without being limited to:


  • payments under profit participating loans,
  • imputed interest on instruments such as convertible bonds and zero coupon bonds,
  • amounts under alternative financing arrangements, such as Islamic finance,
  • the finance cost element of finance lease payments,
  • capitalised interest included in the balance sheet value of a related asset, or the amortisation of capitalised interest,
  • amounts measured by reference to a funding return under transfer pricing rules where applicable,
  • notional interest amounts under derivative instruments or hedging arrangements related to an entity’s borrowings,
  • certain foreign exchange gains and losses on borrowings and instruments connected with the raising of finance,
  • guarantee fees for financing arrangements, and
  • arrangement fees and similar costs related to the borrowing of funds.


As far as interest revenues and other economically equivalent taxable revenues are concerned, neither ATAD nor the LN 411 of 2018 clarifies what is to be considered as revenues which are economically equivalent to interest. However, since the definition of borrowing costs also refers to “other costs economically equivalent to interest”, there should be a symmetry in the interpretation of the two concepts.


The optional provision of ATAD according to which EBITDA and exceeding borrowing costs can be determined at the level of the consolidated group (in case of tax consolidation) has also been introduced in this regulation.


Entities which are out of the scope of the rule


Financial undertakings are out of the scope of the interest limitation rule. Financial undertakings are the ones regulated by the EU Directives and Regulations and include among others credit institutions, investments firms, insurance and reinsurance companies, certain pension institutions, alternative investment funds (“AIF”), undertakings for collective investment in transferable securities (“UCITS”), as well as central counterparties and central securities depositories.


In addition, standalone entities, i.e. entities that are not part of a consolidated group for financial accounting purposes and have no associated enterprise or PE are able to fully deduct their exceeding borrowing costs. In other words, these entities are not subject to the new interest limitation rule.


Loans which are out of the scope of the rule 


Malta chose to limit the scope of the new rule through the inclusion of the following two optional provisions under ATAD:


  • loans which were concluded before 17 June 2016 (i.e. a grandfathering rule) are excluded. However, the exclusion does not apply to any subsequent modification of such loans. Accordingly, when the nominal amount of a loan granted before 17 June 2016 is increased after this date, the interest in relation to the increased amount would be subject to the interest deduction limitation rule. Likewise, when the interest rate applicable on a loan granted before 17 June 2016 is increased thereafter, only the original interest rate would benefit from the grandfathering rule. Nevertheless, when companies are financed by a loan facility that determines a maximum loan amount and an interest rate, the entire loan amount should be excluded from the scope of the interest deduction limitation rule, irrespective of when the drawdowns have been made;
  • loans used to fund long-term public infrastructure projects (where the project operator, borrowing costs, assets and income are all in the EU) are also excluded.


Carry forward of unused exceeding borrowing costs and unused interest capacity 


Exceeding borrowing costs which cannot be deducted in one tax period because they exceed the limit set in the rule, can be carried forward in whole or in part without any time limitation.

In addition, unused interest capacity can be carried forward over 5 tax years.  The regulations do not define what falls under unused interest capacity.


Exit Taxation Rules (Rule 5)


As from 1 January 2020, re-domiciliation’s and shift of tax residency to other jurisdictions will trigger exit taxes.  The aim is to even out discrepancies in the valuation of assets in the country of origin and the valuation of assets in the country of destination.


The exit rules transposed through rule 5 of L.N. 411, provide for tax on capital gains which are triggered when a taxpayer:

  • transfers assets from its head office in Malta to a PE in another country;
  • transfers assets from its PE in Malta to its head office or another PE in another country;
  • transfers its tax residence from Malta to another country, or
  • transfers its activities made through a PE in Malta to another country.


The capital gain will be equivalent to the difference between the market value of the assets at the time of the exit and their value for tax purposes.  The capital gain will be subject to the provisions of the Income Tax Act.    The income tax on the capital gain becomes payable by not later than the taxpayer’s subsequent tax return date.  In case of transfers within the EU or European Economic Area (“EEA”), the taxpayer may request to defer the payment of exit tax by paying in equal installments over 5 years.


Exit taxes do not apply if the assets are set to revert back to Malta within a period of 12 months and the assets relate to the financing of securities, assets posted as collateral or an asset transfer that takes place in order to meet prudential capital requirements or for the purpose of liquidity management.


General Anti-Abuse Rule (Rule 6)


Any arrangements put into place for the main purpose or one of the main purposes of obtaining a tax advantage that defeats the object or purpose of the applicable tax law shall be disregarded. Arrangements are considered as non-genuine to the extent that they are not put into place for valid commercial reasons which reflect economic reality.


Article 51 of the Income Tax Act already includes general anti abuse provisions which explicitly states that any series of arrangements which are put up solely for taking benefit of any tax advantage is ignored for tax purposes.  The GAAR transposed in regulation 6 of L.N. 411 prescribes that, for the purposes of calculating the corporate tax liability, there shall be ignored an arrangement or a series of arrangements which, having been put into place for the main purpose or one of the main purposes of obtaining a tax advantage that defeats the object or purpose of the applicable tax law, are not genuine having regard to all relevant facts and circumstances. An arrangement or a series thereof is regarded as non-genuine to the extent that they are not put into place for valid commercial reasons which reflect economic reality.


CFC Rule (Rule 7)


ATAD provides for CFC rules to discourage the attribution of income in a low-taxed jurisdiction.  Malta opted to adopt the non -genuine arrangement CFC rule, thus, as from 1 January 2019, Malta will tax the non-distributed income of an entity or PE which qualifies as a CFC.


The income of a CFC will be taxed in Malta if, and to the extent that, the activities of the CFC that generate this income are managed by the Maltese corporate taxpayer as the people functions in relation to the activities of the CFC are performed by the Maltese corporate taxpayer.


An entity or a PE will qualify as a CFC if the following conditions are met:

  • The taxpayer by itself, or together with its associated enterprises, holds directly or indirectly more than 50% in the entity.  Holding includes equity holding, voting rights and right to profit; and
  • The actual corporate tax paid by the entity or PE is lower than the difference between the tax that would have been charged on the entity or PE computed in accordance with the Maltese Income Tax Act and the actual corporate tax paid on its profits.


If an entity or PE is deemed to be a CFC, then the non-distributed income arising from non-genuine arrangements of a CFC which are put in place for the purpose of gaining a tax advantage shall be included in the tax base of the taxpayer and hence will be brought to charge in Malta.    The CFC rule applies only if:

  • The CFC’s accounting profits exceed €750,000 and non-trading income exceeds €75,000, or
  • The CFC’s accounting profits amount to more than 10% of its’ operating costs.


Allocation rules and methods to avoid double taxation


The income of the CFC to be included in the tax base of the Maltese taxpayer shall be limited to amounts generated through assets and risks which are linked to significant people functions carried out by the controlling Maltese corporate taxpayer. The attribution of CFC income shall be calculated in accordance with the arm’s length principle.   The income to be included in the tax base shall be computed in proportion to the taxpayer’s participation in the CFC and is included in the tax period of the Maltese taxpayer in which the tax year of the CFC ends.   Any tax paid by the CFC is allowed as a tax credit to the taxpayer in accordance with the provisions of articles 77 and 82 of the Act.  Whilst the legislation provides for general guidelines as to how the income to be brought to charge will be calculated, in practice, various issues may arise which may require further clarifications from the tax department.




Following the launch of the BEPS recommendations by the OECD and the G20 in 2015,  Malta has now implemented the EU directive to address tax avoidance schemes though ATAD.  This follows the implementation of the MLI and the end of the single malt structures.


Most measures introduced through ATAD are new concepts to the Maltese tax framework.  For the first time, Malta has interest deduction limitations, CFC rules and within two years, exit taxes.  Being a new tax framework, various clarifications will be necessary to ensure that the rules are properly adhered to.  It is indeed unfortunate that these rules have been released only a few days before these enter into effect as this gives very little time to taxpayers to assess the impact of these rules on current structures and assess whether changes are needed to mitigate the impact of these rules.

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Multilateral Instrument (MLI)

On 18 December 2018 Malta ratified the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, more commonly referred to as the Multilateral Instrument (MLI).  Malta has expressed a number of reservations and these may be viewed by accessing


The MLI is an OECD initiative with the objective of providing concrete solutions for governments to close the gaps in existing international tax rules by transposing results from the OECD/G20 BEPS Project into bilateral tax treaties worldwide.  The MLI covers topics from transparent entities, dual resident entities, methods for elimination of double taxation as well as treaty abuse.


As a result of Malta’s implementation of the MLI, double taxation treaties must now be interpreted in light of the MLI provisions.  Counties adhering to the MLI provisions will have greater powers in ensuring that treaty abuse is limited and double non-taxation avoided.

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The end of Single Malt structures

On the 27 November 2018, it was announced that an agreement was reached between Malta and Ireland which ends the Single Malt structures.  These were being used through the transfer of the management and control of Irish incorporated entities to Malta.   Through a Competent Authority Agreement, Malta and Ireland agreed that the purpose of the Double Taxation Convention (DTC) is to eliminate double taxation and not create the opportunity for double non-taxation.  Thus, deeming a company incorporated in Ireland but managed and controlled in Malta to be tax resident only in Malta, does not serve the purposes of the Double Taxation Convention as income was not being brought to charge in neither Malta nor Ireland when the income was not remitted to Malta.  Accordingly, such an Irish-incorporated company will be tax resident in Ireland and the relevant payments to it will come within the charge to Irish corporation tax.


The agreement will come into force with effect from taxable periods beginning on or after the expiration of a period of six months from the later of the dates on which the Multilateral Instrument (MLI) enters into force in Ireland and Malta.  Malta endorsed its agreement with reservations to the MLI through Subsidiary Legislation 123.183 and ratified the MLI on the 18th December 2018.


The Agreement provides the following:

From the coming into effect of the MLI with respect to the DTC between Ireland and Malta (the “Contracting States” in relation to that DTC), where – 

  • for the purpose of avoiding double taxation, under paragraph 3 of Article 4 of the Ireland-Malta DTC a company would be deemed to be only resident in one of the Contracting States, but
  • in the circumstances concerned – 
    • there is no double taxation to be avoided, and
    • it is reasonable to conclude that an opportunity for double non-taxation would otherwise arise,

then any such deeming of the company to be resident only in one of the Contracting States shall not be for the purposes of the Ireland-Malta DTC – as it would serve no such purposes.  It would be superfluous to, and redundant for, those purposes.  

The Competent Authorities shall notify each other in a timely manner where they become aware of circumstances to which this Competent Authority Agreement refers.

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Intellectual Property

A tax deduction has been introduced on the exploitation of qualifying intellectual property (such as royalties) based on a percentage of qualifying income.  The deduction has been introduced with effect from 29 March 2018 however further details are expected to be issued in this regard to clarify when such deductions made be availed of.


The legislation has been also amended so that it is in line with the guidelines issued by the tax authorities on expenditure of a capital nature on intellectual property or any intellectual property rights. It is now clear that such expenditure may be amortised over a period of at least three years which shall not be less than a minimum period of three consecutive years, the first year being that in which the said expenditure has been incurred or the year in which the intellectual property or intellectual property rights is / are first used or employed in producing the income. Such change is effective from year of assessment 2017.

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Participation Exemption

The applicability of the participation exemption on dividend income and capital gains from participating holding investments has been widened by reducing the ‘qualifying’ percentage or minimum equity threshold from 10% to 5%.


The type of entities in which the ‘participating holding’ is held has also been widened and now includes not only companies, partnerships, collective investment schemes (CIS) or other bodies of persons but also EEIGs (European Economic Interest Grouping).


These amendments make the participation exemption for Maltese companies more accessible especially when one considers that there are various other conditions which may be satisfied apart from the minimum 5% equity investment.


These changes are effective from 29 March 2018.

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