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Budget Newsletter 2020

On 14 October 2019, the Honourable Minister for Finance, Professor Edward Scicluna, presented the Budget for the coming year. In his introduction, he summarised the most salient features in relation to the performance of the Maltese economy with the main points being the following:

  • The economic growth for the first six months of 2019 was 4.7% in real terms and 7.3% in nominal terms;
  • GDP increase in real terms is expected to be 4.3% for 2020;
  • Unemployment stood at 3.3% in August 2019 and it is expected to be around 3.5% in 2020;
  • Inflation rate is expected to be 1.6% for 2020;
  • Government debt as a percentage of GDP is expected to be 43.1% at end of 2019 and this should go down to 40.4% in 2020.

The Cost of Living Adjustment (COLA) for 2020 will amount to €3.49 per week which will be given in full to pensioners and persons on social benefits. Employees will also be entitled to an additional day of vacation leave which is added to their annual leave entitlement.


Fiscal measures

  • 15% tax rate on the first 100 hours of overtime for persons earning less than €20,000 per annum;
  • The maximum tax-free pension income will be increased to €13,798 whilst the maximum tax-free income for retired couples earning only one pension will increase to €15,798;
  • A tax refund to employees will be granted and will be based on the employee’s income. The tax refund varies between €40 and €68;
  • Tax incentives under the Voluntary Occupational Pension Scheme are being extended;
  • VAT exemption on education related services;
  • VAT refund (capped to €1,000) granted to persons with disabilities who purchase medical equipment.


Tax Administration

  • Registration and deregistration of VAT numbers and PE applications may now be done online;
  • Married couples may now opt for separate tax returns and assessment;
  • The Inland Revenue Department will generate provisional assessments in lieu of the tax return to reduce the need for individuals filing of an income tax return;
  • The Inland Revenue Department will issue tax statements and refunds within a period of six months from the submission date.


Property Related Measures

  • The existing reduction in duty on documents (to 1.5%) upon the transfer of business to family members is being extended by another year;
  • Extension of the current schemes for the reduction of duty on documents for first time buyers, second time buyers, purchase of property in UCA and purchase of property in Gozo. The first €175,000 (previously €150,000) of the value of property bought by first time buyers is now exempt from duty on documents;
  • Duty on documents on residential property acquired through causa mortis will be taxed at the rate of 3.5% (instead of 5%) on the first €175,000;
  • Gains made on the sale of a promise of sale agreement will be subject to tax at the rate of 15% on the first €100,000. This tax is a final tax and the gain made from the transfer of the promise of sale agreement will not form part of the chargeable income of the person.


Social Measures

  • Various tax refund to low income earners;
  • Increase in pension income for persons opting to work after retirement age;
  • Increase in social security payments to persons and pensioners suffering from disabilities;
  • Assistance to parents whose children suffer from rare diseases, persons suffering from certain conditions and persons under cancer treatment;
  • Assistance to persons under the age of 40 who do not have enough funds for the deposit on the purchase of residential property;
  • The subsidy for low income earners to assist in the payment of rent on residential property is being extended and the criteria to qualify for such subsidies will be widened.


Environment Friendly Measures

  • A Commission will be set up to determine the date after which no polluting engine cars may be imported;
  • Reduction in the electricity tariff for persons opting to charge their electric car at home;
  • Introduction of the Beverage Container Recycling Scheme for the collection of certain waste;
  • Abolition of single use plastic as from 1 January 2022;
  • Grants will be available to persons in the construction industry who opt to replace their polluting machines with environmentally friendly ones. The grant is capped to €200,000;
  • A Grant of €1,000 for persons purchasing batteries for the storage of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels. This is only available to persons who no longer benefit from feed-in tariffs;
  • Extension of the exemption from registration taxes on electric and hybrid cars;
  • Extension of the VAT refund upon purchase of bicycles and electric motors, scooters and bicycles;
  • Extension of the current grant of a maximum of €1,500 given to persons opting to change their car to one which is more environment friendly.



  • Additional investments allocated to Artificial Intelligence (AI) which will place Malta with the top 10 countries in this field. Such investments include educational programmes, the inauguration of an AI Innovation Hub, implementation of pilot projects in the public sector utilising AI and additional technological infrastructure;
  • The Government will be implementing assistance measures for sectors such as digital arts, games programming and production media in order to attract additional foreign investments relating to the game productions;
  • To further diversify the Maltese economy, a legislative framework for the space industry is planned to be introduced. A consultation document will be drafted as a basis for a national strategy which will also tackle research and development in this field;
  • Malta will also explore a new economic sector in the aviation industry relating to Drones (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems) in order to attract foreign investors for research, technological experiments and education in this area;
  • Schemes such as the Micro Invest, Business START and Start-Up Finance will be extended;
  • Malta Enterprise will be introducing incentives for businesses to employ people with special needs;
  • Additional investment in the gas pipeline between Malta and Sicily of €400 million till 2024;
  • Consultation for the revision of the current aviation rules to incentivise further investment in the sector.



  • Introduction of the Film Fund during 2019 to incentivise cinema productions;
  • A new fund will be launched so that Gozo may become a destination for Meetings, Conferences and Events;
  • The Gozo Business Scheme will continue. This scheme assists start-ups in Gozo;
  • Fiscal incentives for companies to relocate to Gozo;
  • A tendering process for the forth ferry will start to enable the Gozo Channel to acquire a new ferry;
  • Studies such as the preliminary designs and environmental impact assessment in connection to the bridge between Malta and Gozo are to be concluded in the coming months.


Strategy against fiscal evasion and money laundering

The Minister announced that a report issued by the European Commission’s Directorate General for Taxation and Customs (TAXUD) noted that Malta is the fourth country within the EU Member States with the least evasion in VAT collection.

Following the issuance of the Moneyval recommendations, the National Coordination Committee is coordinating a detailed plan for the implementation of these recommendations.

The Minister further announced that a new agency known as the ‘Financial Organised Crimes Agency’ will be set up and will be complimentary to the Economic Crimes Unit.

As from next year, cash payments exceeding €10,000 for the purchase of property, cars, boats, yachts, diamonds, precious stones and works of arts will not be allowed.



During the budget speech, the Minister noted that Malta’s success is being recognised by international agencies. Indeed, The World Economic Forum rated Malta in the first place for two consecutive years. Furthermore, he noted that this is the third budget in a row with no increase in taxes and based on the Government’s estimates, the year 2020 will be the fifth year with a budget surplus.

Rather than introducing new measures, this budget was an extension of existing measures focusing on the social aspect and low-income earners, property related measures and environment friendly measures. The Minister made references to plans to develop new areas like Artificial Intelligence and Digital Arts in order to attract further foreign direct investment.

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The Patent Box Regime

As from year of assessment 2020, any person incurring qualifying IP expenditure and from which qualifying IP income is derived, may claim a deduction which may reduce the chargeable income from qualifying IP by 95%.  The assets that are considered as qualifying IP are defined in the Rules and include registered patents and assets covered by protection rights, however, exclude brands, trademarks and trade names.  Every item of qualifying IP in relation to which income is derived and against which the Patent Box Regime Deduction is claimed, need to be vetted and approved by the Malta Enterprise.  The deduction is aimed for assets which are developed by the person rather than for acquired assets.  The deduction is however not limited to assets developed in Malta but require that the beneficiary maintains sufficient substance as is commensurate with the type and extent of activity being carried out.    The Rules also require that the income brought to charge is in line with the Transfer Pricing Method in terms of the OECD’s Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations.


The introduction of the Patent Box Regime is particularly interesting for persons investing in the development of patents or other innovative products from which income or gains arise.  Indeed, this regime may drastically reduce the taxable income of the person and may also be applied upon the disposal of the relevant asset.

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Malta signs a tax treaty with Kosovo

The tax treaty between Malta and the Republic of Kosovo has been published in Legal Notice 168 of 2019.

As most other tax treaties, this tax treaty is also modelled on the OECD model convention.  No withholding taxes apply on dividends paid by a company resident in Kosovo if the holding percentage of the Maltese tax resident exceeds 10% and the shares are held for more than a year.  In other cases, the withholding tax rate on dividends is 10%.   Withholding tax on interest paid in Kosovo is limited to 5% of the gross amount of interest whereas no withholding tax applies on royalty payments.

Elimination of double taxation is provided for under the credit method.   As with other tax treaties, the treaty also contains the standard articles with respect to the Mutual Agreement Procedure and Exchange of Information.


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Tax Consolidation in Malta

Following the publication of the Consolidated Group (Income Tax) Rules by means of Legal Notice 110 of 2019, Malta introduced fiscal unity rules providing for a consolidated tax group.  As a result, certain groups of companies may, from the year of assessment 2020 (basis year 2019), opt to be treated as one single taxpayer.

Unlike the group relief provisions already contained in the Income Tax Act which provide for the surrendering of tax losses to other members of the same group, the fiscal unity rules provide for a consolidated tax group.

Also, the definition of a group in these rules is different and much wider than the definition contained in the Income Tax Act allowing both Maltese companies as well as foreign entities that fall within the definition of a company to form part of the consolidated group. The foreign entities need not be tax resident in Malta to form part of the fiscal unit, but it is necessary that they are tax registered in Malta.

It is interesting to note that certain trust arrangements as well as certain foundations may also form part of the consolidated tax group. This will give flexibility to certain structures.  On the other hand, the rules exclude certain types of foundations, securitisation vehicles and finance leasing companies.


Requirements for the Formation of a Fiscal Unit

 A parent company, as the principal taxpayer, may make an election for itself and its one or more subsidiaries to form a fiscal unit provided that in the year prior to the year of assessment it holds at least 95% of two of the following rights in each subsidiary (hereinafter refer to as 95% subsidiary):

  • voting rights;
  • profits available for distribution; or
  • assets available for distribution upon winding up.

Where the election is made, each 95% subsidiary will form part of the same fiscal unit of its parent company, with such subsidiaries being referred to as “transparent subsidiaries.” Where the transparent subsidiary is itself a parent company, its 95% subsidiaries will also join the fiscal unit.  The principal taxpayer’s election becomes effective as from the year of assessment in which it is made, provided that it is made prior to tax return submission due date of the transparent subsidiaries.

Such an election is possible provided that the accounting periods of all the members within the fiscal unit are the same and subject to the consent of any minority shareholders. Naturally, no company shall form part of more than one fiscal unit at any one time.

Upon registering as a fiscal unit, the principal taxpayer assumes the rights, duties and obligations under the Income Tax Acts relative to the fiscal unit.  The subsidiaries within the fiscal unit shall be deemed to be transparent entities for Malta income tax purposes. Balances of items allowed to be carried forward, tax credits, tax account balances (excluding the untaxed account) of the transparent subsidiaries at the end of the basis year preceding the year in which the election is made are considered to be balances of the principal taxpayer.  Such carryforward is subject to the consent of the minority shareholders and if minority shareholders do not approve, then such balances will be suspended for as long as the transparent subsidiary remains part of the fiscal unit.


The Fiscal Unit’s Chargeable Income and Tax Payable

 Intra-group transactions or transactions between members of the fiscal unit are referred to as “ignored transactions” and are disregarded for tax purposes. An exception relates to transfers of immovable property situated in Malta and transfers of property companies.

A property company is defined in the Income Tax Act as a company which owns immovable property situated in Malta or any real rights thereon or a company which holds, directly or indirectly, shares or other interests in any entity or person, which owns immovable property situated in Malta or any real rights thereon where 5% or more of the total value of the said shares or other interests so held is attributable to such immovable property or right.

Naturally, transfers of immovable property and property companies cannot be characterised as ignored transactions as otherwise such transfers would become exempt when transferred within a fiscal unit.

Given that the subsidiaries are deemed to be transparent subsidiaries, any income and gains which is not regarded as ignored transactions derived by such transparent subsidiaries, is directly allocated to the principal taxpayer.

Income or gains allocated to the principal taxpayer retain their character and source. The rules however contemplate a number of deemed source rules. For example, income or gains derived by a non-Malta tax resident transparent subsidiary is deemed to be attributable to a permanent establishment of the principal taxpayer situated outside Malta insofar as the transparent subsidiary maintains sufficient substance therein.

Similarly, expenditure and capital allowances incurred by transparent subsidiaries and which is not regarded as an ignored transaction, is directly allocated to the principal taxpayer or the parent company.

This tax consolidation provides for a full integration of the tax position of its members and hence is different in scope than the group relief provisions referred to above.

Furthermore, any foreign income tax suffered by a company forming part of the fiscal unit is deemed to have been incurred by the principal taxpayer, and relief from double taxation in accordance with the Income Tax Act is allowed accordingly.

The main advantage of the tax consolidation or the fiscal unity is that a group may achieve the same effective tax rate without the need for the distributing company or transparent subsidiary to pay the relevant tax and also avoid the need to make claims and await the receipt of the refunds.

The tax consolidation regime is optional, but should a fiscal unit be formed, the principal taxpayer is required to prepare, on a yearly basis, a consolidated balance sheet and consolidated profit and loss account covering all companies within the fiscal unit accompanied by an audit report. Given the criteria described above to form a fiscal unit, the companies included in the consolidated accounts for the tax consolidation regime may differ from thse included in the consolidated accounts as required in terms of the Companies Act.

The principal taxpayer is responsible for filing the tax return/declaration of the fiscal unit, with other members of the fiscal unit being exempted from filing their respective tax returns. However, members of the fiscal unit are jointly and severally liable for the payment of tax, additional tax and interest. The tax liability by the fiscal unit may be apportioned between the principal taxpayer and the transparent subsidiaries.

These tax consolidation rules provide for an anti-abuse rule where the tax payable by the principal taxpayer cannot be lower than 95% of the aggregate tax that would have been payable by the companies within the fiscal unit had an election under these rules was not applied for.


Benefits of Tax Consolidation

As highlighted earlier on, the main benefit of the tax consolidation or fiscal unity is the cash flow advantage especially when compared to the current operation of the partial shareholder tax refunds upon a distribution of taxed profits. The new tax consolidation rules reduce the tax due to the combined overall effective tax rate without the need to wait for the income tax refund on distributed taxed profits. However, the tax consolidation may also be useful within a local context since it is wider in scope than the surrendering of tax trading losses.  Clearly in view of the embedded anti-abuse provision, the purpose of these rules is not to provide a tax advantage.

It is evident that the tax consolidation rules will bring further compliance obligations, particularly the need to prepare and submit consolidated financial statements.  Additionally, tax computations will still be required for each company and also for the fiscal unit as a whole in order to compare the tax liabilities and satisfy the anti-abuse provision. On the other hand, there is less compliance with respect to the filing of the income tax returns or declarations as only one return or declaration is submitted by the principal taxpayer.

The Notional Interest Deduction (NID) has already eased the number of tax refund claims filed by shareholders upon a receipt of taxed dividends but we expect that these rules will be availed of by large groups. The introduction of tax consolidation rules is long-awaited and is welcome as it brings Malta at level with other financial centers.

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Malta signs a tax treaty with Monaco

Malta published the tax treaty with the Principality of Monaco by means of Legal notice 70 of 2019.

The tax treaty is modelled on the OECD model convention, but there are no withholding taxes on dividends, interest and royalties given that both countries do not levy any withholding taxes.   The residence state will have jurisdiction to tax such income according to the tax legislation.  The treaty also provides that the source state will have taxing rights with respect to capital gains on immovable property and capital gains on shares whose value is derived as to more than 50% from immovable property.

The tax treaty also contains ‘standard articles’ with respect to the elimination of double taxation (under the credit method), mutual agreement procedure (MAP) and exchange of information.

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Malta implements ATAD

Malta implemented the EU Directive 2016/1164 of 12 July 2016 laying down rules against tax avoidance practices that directly affect the functioning of the internal market (ATAD) by means of Legal Notice 411 of 2018 EU ATAD Implementation Regulations, 2018.  The below provides an overview of the different new tax measures which will become applicable as from 1 January 2019, except for the exit taxation rule which will become applicable as from 1 January 2020.




The aim of ATAD is to implement at EU level the BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting) recommendations made by the OECD and the G20 in October 2015. ATAD lays down anti-tax avoidance rules in the following fields:

  • Deductibility of interest payments,
  • General anti-abuse rule (“GAAR”),
  • Controlled foreign companies (“CFCs”), and
  • Exit taxation.


The regulations apply to taxpayers including companies as well as other entities such as trusts and similar arrangements that are subject to tax in Malta in the same manner as companies.  The definition also applies to entities that are not resident in Malta but have a permanent establishment (PE) in Malta provided these are subject to tax in Malta as companies.


Limitation to the Tax Deductibility of Interest Payments (Rule 4)


Regulation 4 of L.N. 411 aims at limiting the deductibility of interest payments as it was recommended in the Final Report on BEPS Action 4 (interest deductions and other financial payments) and included as a minimum standard in ATAD. The objective of this rule is to discourage multinational groups from reducing their overall tax base through financing group companies in high-tax jurisdictions with debt. Notably, the scope of the interest limitation rule encompasses both related party borrowing and third party borrowing.


As from 1 January 2019, subject to certain conditions and limitations, “exceeding borrowing costs” shall be deductible only up to 30% of the corporate taxpayers’ earnings before interest, tax and amortization (“EBITDA”) or up to an amount of EUR 3 million, whichever is higher. Corporate taxpayers who can demonstrate that the ratio of their equity over their total assets is equal to or higher than the equivalent ratio of the group can fully deduct their exceeding borrowing costs (so called “escape clause”).


“Exceeding borrowing costs” correspond to the amount by which the deductible “borrowing costs” of a taxpayer exceed taxable “interest revenues and other economically equivalent taxable revenues” that the taxpayer receives. Thus, in order to determine the amount of exceeding borrowing costs, it is necessary to understand which costs fall within the scope of borrowing costs and what is considered as interest revenues and other economically equivalent taxable revenues.


Borrowing costs to take into account are interest expenses on all forms of debt, other costs economically equivalent to interest and expenses incurred in connection with the raising of finance, including, without being limited to:


  • payments under profit participating loans,
  • imputed interest on instruments such as convertible bonds and zero coupon bonds,
  • amounts under alternative financing arrangements, such as Islamic finance,
  • the finance cost element of finance lease payments,
  • capitalised interest included in the balance sheet value of a related asset, or the amortisation of capitalised interest,
  • amounts measured by reference to a funding return under transfer pricing rules where applicable,
  • notional interest amounts under derivative instruments or hedging arrangements related to an entity’s borrowings,
  • certain foreign exchange gains and losses on borrowings and instruments connected with the raising of finance,
  • guarantee fees for financing arrangements, and
  • arrangement fees and similar costs related to the borrowing of funds.


As far as interest revenues and other economically equivalent taxable revenues are concerned, neither ATAD nor the LN 411 of 2018 clarifies what is to be considered as revenues which are economically equivalent to interest. However, since the definition of borrowing costs also refers to “other costs economically equivalent to interest”, there should be a symmetry in the interpretation of the two concepts.


The optional provision of ATAD according to which EBITDA and exceeding borrowing costs can be determined at the level of the consolidated group (in case of tax consolidation) has also been introduced in this regulation.


Entities which are out of the scope of the rule


Financial undertakings are out of the scope of the interest limitation rule. Financial undertakings are the ones regulated by the EU Directives and Regulations and include among others credit institutions, investments firms, insurance and reinsurance companies, certain pension institutions, alternative investment funds (“AIF”), undertakings for collective investment in transferable securities (“UCITS”), as well as central counterparties and central securities depositories.


In addition, standalone entities, i.e. entities that are not part of a consolidated group for financial accounting purposes and have no associated enterprise or PE are able to fully deduct their exceeding borrowing costs. In other words, these entities are not subject to the new interest limitation rule.


Loans which are out of the scope of the rule 


Malta chose to limit the scope of the new rule through the inclusion of the following two optional provisions under ATAD:


  • loans which were concluded before 17 June 2016 (i.e. a grandfathering rule) are excluded. However, the exclusion does not apply to any subsequent modification of such loans. Accordingly, when the nominal amount of a loan granted before 17 June 2016 is increased after this date, the interest in relation to the increased amount would be subject to the interest deduction limitation rule. Likewise, when the interest rate applicable on a loan granted before 17 June 2016 is increased thereafter, only the original interest rate would benefit from the grandfathering rule. Nevertheless, when companies are financed by a loan facility that determines a maximum loan amount and an interest rate, the entire loan amount should be excluded from the scope of the interest deduction limitation rule, irrespective of when the drawdowns have been made;
  • loans used to fund long-term public infrastructure projects (where the project operator, borrowing costs, assets and income are all in the EU) are also excluded.


Carry forward of unused exceeding borrowing costs and unused interest capacity 


Exceeding borrowing costs which cannot be deducted in one tax period because they exceed the limit set in the rule, can be carried forward in whole or in part without any time limitation.

In addition, unused interest capacity can be carried forward over 5 tax years.  The regulations do not define what falls under unused interest capacity.


Exit Taxation Rules (Rule 5)


As from 1 January 2020, re-domiciliation’s and shift of tax residency to other jurisdictions will trigger exit taxes.  The aim is to even out discrepancies in the valuation of assets in the country of origin and the valuation of assets in the country of destination.


The exit rules transposed through rule 5 of L.N. 411, provide for tax on capital gains which are triggered when a taxpayer:

  • transfers assets from its head office in Malta to a PE in another country;
  • transfers assets from its PE in Malta to its head office or another PE in another country;
  • transfers its tax residence from Malta to another country, or
  • transfers its activities made through a PE in Malta to another country.


The capital gain will be equivalent to the difference between the market value of the assets at the time of the exit and their value for tax purposes.  The capital gain will be subject to the provisions of the Income Tax Act.    The income tax on the capital gain becomes payable by not later than the taxpayer’s subsequent tax return date.  In case of transfers within the EU or European Economic Area (“EEA”), the taxpayer may request to defer the payment of exit tax by paying in equal installments over 5 years.


Exit taxes do not apply if the assets are set to revert back to Malta within a period of 12 months and the assets relate to the financing of securities, assets posted as collateral or an asset transfer that takes place in order to meet prudential capital requirements or for the purpose of liquidity management.


General Anti-Abuse Rule (Rule 6)


Any arrangements put into place for the main purpose or one of the main purposes of obtaining a tax advantage that defeats the object or purpose of the applicable tax law shall be disregarded. Arrangements are considered as non-genuine to the extent that they are not put into place for valid commercial reasons which reflect economic reality.


Article 51 of the Income Tax Act already includes general anti abuse provisions which explicitly states that any series of arrangements which are put up solely for taking benefit of any tax advantage is ignored for tax purposes.  The GAAR transposed in regulation 6 of L.N. 411 prescribes that, for the purposes of calculating the corporate tax liability, there shall be ignored an arrangement or a series of arrangements which, having been put into place for the main purpose or one of the main purposes of obtaining a tax advantage that defeats the object or purpose of the applicable tax law, are not genuine having regard to all relevant facts and circumstances. An arrangement or a series thereof is regarded as non-genuine to the extent that they are not put into place for valid commercial reasons which reflect economic reality.


CFC Rule (Rule 7)


ATAD provides for CFC rules to discourage the attribution of income in a low-taxed jurisdiction.  Malta opted to adopt the non -genuine arrangement CFC rule, thus, as from 1 January 2019, Malta will tax the non-distributed income of an entity or PE which qualifies as a CFC.


The income of a CFC will be taxed in Malta if, and to the extent that, the activities of the CFC that generate this income are managed by the Maltese corporate taxpayer as the people functions in relation to the activities of the CFC are performed by the Maltese corporate taxpayer.


An entity or a PE will qualify as a CFC if the following conditions are met:

  • The taxpayer by itself, or together with its associated enterprises, holds directly or indirectly more than 50% in the entity.  Holding includes equity holding, voting rights and right to profit; and
  • The actual corporate tax paid by the entity or PE is lower than the difference between the tax that would have been charged on the entity or PE computed in accordance with the Maltese Income Tax Act and the actual corporate tax paid on its profits.


If an entity or PE is deemed to be a CFC, then the non-distributed income arising from non-genuine arrangements of a CFC which are put in place for the purpose of gaining a tax advantage shall be included in the tax base of the taxpayer and hence will be brought to charge in Malta.    The CFC rule applies only if:

  • The CFC’s accounting profits exceed €750,000 and non-trading income exceeds €75,000, or
  • The CFC’s accounting profits amount to more than 10% of its’ operating costs.


Allocation rules and methods to avoid double taxation


The income of the CFC to be included in the tax base of the Maltese taxpayer shall be limited to amounts generated through assets and risks which are linked to significant people functions carried out by the controlling Maltese corporate taxpayer. The attribution of CFC income shall be calculated in accordance with the arm’s length principle.   The income to be included in the tax base shall be computed in proportion to the taxpayer’s participation in the CFC and is included in the tax period of the Maltese taxpayer in which the tax year of the CFC ends.   Any tax paid by the CFC is allowed as a tax credit to the taxpayer in accordance with the provisions of articles 77 and 82 of the Act.  Whilst the legislation provides for general guidelines as to how the income to be brought to charge will be calculated, in practice, various issues may arise which may require further clarifications from the tax department.




Following the launch of the BEPS recommendations by the OECD and the G20 in 2015,  Malta has now implemented the EU directive to address tax avoidance schemes though ATAD.  This follows the implementation of the MLI and the end of the single malt structures.


Most measures introduced through ATAD are new concepts to the Maltese tax framework.  For the first time, Malta has interest deduction limitations, CFC rules and within two years, exit taxes.  Being a new tax framework, various clarifications will be necessary to ensure that the rules are properly adhered to.  It is indeed unfortunate that these rules have been released only a few days before these enter into effect as this gives very little time to taxpayers to assess the impact of these rules on current structures and assess whether changes are needed to mitigate the impact of these rules.

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Multilateral Instrument (MLI)

On 18 December 2018 Malta ratified the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, more commonly referred to as the Multilateral Instrument (MLI).  Malta has expressed a number of reservations and these may be viewed by accessing


The MLI is an OECD initiative with the objective of providing concrete solutions for governments to close the gaps in existing international tax rules by transposing results from the OECD/G20 BEPS Project into bilateral tax treaties worldwide.  The MLI covers topics from transparent entities, dual resident entities, methods for elimination of double taxation as well as treaty abuse.


As a result of Malta’s implementation of the MLI, double taxation treaties must now be interpreted in light of the MLI provisions.  Counties adhering to the MLI provisions will have greater powers in ensuring that treaty abuse is limited and double non-taxation avoided.

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The end of Single Malt structures

On the 27 November 2018, it was announced that an agreement was reached between Malta and Ireland which ends the Single Malt structures.  These were being used through the transfer of the management and control of Irish incorporated entities to Malta.   Through a Competent Authority Agreement, Malta and Ireland agreed that the purpose of the Double Taxation Convention (DTC) is to eliminate double taxation and not create the opportunity for double non-taxation.  Thus, deeming a company incorporated in Ireland but managed and controlled in Malta to be tax resident only in Malta, does not serve the purposes of the Double Taxation Convention as income was not being brought to charge in neither Malta nor Ireland when the income was not remitted to Malta.  Accordingly, such an Irish-incorporated company will be tax resident in Ireland and the relevant payments to it will come within the charge to Irish corporation tax.


The agreement will come into force with effect from taxable periods beginning on or after the expiration of a period of six months from the later of the dates on which the Multilateral Instrument (MLI) enters into force in Ireland and Malta.  Malta endorsed its agreement with reservations to the MLI through Subsidiary Legislation 123.183 and ratified the MLI on the 18th December 2018.


The Agreement provides the following:

From the coming into effect of the MLI with respect to the DTC between Ireland and Malta (the “Contracting States” in relation to that DTC), where – 

  • for the purpose of avoiding double taxation, under paragraph 3 of Article 4 of the Ireland-Malta DTC a company would be deemed to be only resident in one of the Contracting States, but
  • in the circumstances concerned – 
    • there is no double taxation to be avoided, and
    • it is reasonable to conclude that an opportunity for double non-taxation would otherwise arise,

then any such deeming of the company to be resident only in one of the Contracting States shall not be for the purposes of the Ireland-Malta DTC – as it would serve no such purposes.  It would be superfluous to, and redundant for, those purposes.  

The Competent Authorities shall notify each other in a timely manner where they become aware of circumstances to which this Competent Authority Agreement refers.

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Taxation of DLT Assets

The Maltese Tax Authorities issued guidelines in connection with the income tax, VAT and duty on documents implications arising from transactions or arrangements involving DLT assets.


The following is a list of definitions included in the guidelines:



The general income tax principles contained in the Income Tax Act apply to transactions involving DLT assets.  The guidelines serve to provide clarifications regarding the income tax treatment of a number of transactions or arrangements involving DLT assets.

The following is a summary of the tax treatment of transactions involving DLT Assets:


The following is a summary of the income tax treatment of transactions in coins:


Coins fall outside scope of Article 5 of the Income Tax Act and therefore they are not considered to give rise to any capital gain for income tax purposes.


The following summarises the tax treatment for the return on financial tokens:


The following outlines the tax treatment arising from the transfers of financial and utility tokens:


The distinction between trading income and non-trading income may not always be evident.  It may therefore be necessary to refer to the badges of trade to determine whether the income received falls within the definition of trading income or not.  Such determination is crucial to assess the tax treatment of transferred tokens.

The following portrays the tax treatment applicable for initial offerings:


Value Added Tax (VAT)

The general VAT principles applicable to taxable events also apply to transactions or arrangements involving DLT assets.  Maltese VAT rules apply only if the place of supply of a transaction or arrangement is deemed to be Malta.  Furthermore, the chargeable event would only arise where a supply of service is made for a consideration by a taxable person acting as such and there is a direct link between the consideration payable and the supply made and where there is reciprocal performance between the suppliers and the recipient of the service.


The following is a general overview of the VAT treatment of transactions involving DLT assets:


If a token contains features of both a financial and a utility token (also referred to as a hybrid token),  then the VAT treatment depends on the use of such token.  A hybrid token used as a utility token then it is to be treated as such, while if in another occasion the same token is used as a coin, then it needs to be treated as such.


When treated as a voucher, the consideration paid for a utility token shall be deemed to be gross of VAT due.  Another important issue to determine is when the token is subject to VAT:


The guidelines provide clarification as to whether initial offerings are subject to VAT or not:


In case of electronically supplied services rendered to non-taxable persons established in other Member States, the supplier may opt to register and account for VAT through the Mini-One-Stop-Shop system (MOSS) to facilitate the administration for the payment of the VAT within the EU.


Duty on Documents and Transfers Act (DDTA)

The following is a summary of the DDTA implications arising with respect to transactions involving DLT assets:

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VFA and ITAS Acts come into force

Through Legal Notices 306 and 307 of 2018 the Minister for the Digital Economy has established the 1 November 2018 as the date on which the provisions of the Innovative Technology Arrangements and Services (ITAS)  Act and of the Virtual Financial Assets (VFA) Act, respectively, shall be deemed to have come into force.

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